Uzbekistan may become a hub for renewable energy development in Central Asia
Currently, climate change has undoubtedly taken first place among the main environmental problems facing the world community. The rapid development of technology and the negative impact of human activity on nature on a global scale is only increasing every year. Emissions of toxic gases from the burning of oil and coal are increasing, and the ozone layer is rapidly being destroyed. One of the available approaches to prevent the impact of climate change on the environment and ensure a safe lifestyle for people is the transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are often seen as one of the best solutions to prevent further global warming and climate change. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power do not create harmful greenhouse gas emissions (mainly carbon dioxide) that contribute to climate change.
Wind power is an energy industry specializing in the conversion of kinetic energy of air masses in the atmosphere into electrical, mechanical, thermal or any other form of energy convenient for use in the economy.
Wind energy reserves are more than a hundred times higher than the reserves of hydropower of all the rivers of the planet, climatic conditions allow the development of wind energy in almost all countries of the planet. According to experts, the wind energy potential of the Earth is equal to 1200 TW, but the level of its use is not the same and varies from country to country. For comparison, the installed capacity of all types of power plants in the world is just over 2 TW.
The global cumulative installed wind power generation capacity has grown rapidly and as of the end of 2020 stands at 733 GW. China, USA, Germany, India and Spain continue to show clear leadership. These countries together account for 73% of all wind power capacity in the world. The global installed capacity of wind turbines equals almost 773,0 thousand MW, of which 95,5% is onshore.
Over the last few years, Uzbekistan has aimed to significantly increase the energy potential of the energy sector and strengthen the reliability of electricity supply for the country's growing economy. The growth rate of installed capacity may allow the country to become a net exporter of electricity to neighboring countries in the near future. It is noteworthy that Uzbekistan intends to use renewable energy sources to achieve such ambitious goals, including the development of wind energy.
The country has established a legislative framework for the development of almost all types of renewable energy sources (hydropower, wind and solar energy), such as the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On Rational Use of Energy" and "On the Use of Renewable Energy Sources").
The developed and approved concept of the Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Uzbekistan aims at bringing the total wind power capacity to 5.0 GW by 2030. In accordance with the investment programmes, a number of projects for construction and operation of wind power plants (WPPs) are being implemented, such as construction of a 500 MW wind farm in Zarafshan, construction of 2 wind farms with a total capacity of 1000 MW in Gijduvan and Peshkun districts of Bukhara region and construction of a 100 MW wind farm in Beruni and Karauzyak districts of Karakalpakstan.